Cooling Tower

Crossflow and counterflow cooling towers can be upgraded to integrate Baikal EC fans onto a tower.

By removing a single cell large AC cooling tower fan and introducing Baikal’s cooling tower EC fan array technology, CFM redundancy and energy savings now come into play. Similar to a fan wall in an air handler unit, an array of cooling tower EC fans can replace a large cooling tower single AC fan. Belts, pulleys, and AC motors no longer need to be maintained or replaced. Baikal cooling tower fans and all other required parts will fit through a standard office door and can be brought to the job site without the need for special rigging or cranes.

Maintenance on a large traditional cooling tower AC fan is not only time consuming, but can be difficult due to the location, height, access, and size of a large cooling tower AC fan. Baikal’s cooling tower EC fan array upgrades can accommodate cooling tower capacities from 10 – 1000 tons.

The benefits of a Baikal cooling tower upgrade include:
  • 30-35% Energy Savings!
  • Monetary savings on PM maintenance (100% Free maintenance direct drive EC technology).
  • Monetary savings on VFD maintenance. EC fan technology offers full VFD ability.
  • Redundancy: if one fan fails, the other fans in the array will speed up to meet the required CFM output.
  • Less vibration and noise compared to traditional belt driven fans.

Turn to the experts at Baikal Mechanicals

Cooling Tower Basics: A Digestible Guide to Cooling Tower Systems

Do you ever wonder how a building stays cool even when the outside temperature is unbearable? They use cooling towers.

What are cooling towers? Essentially, they are used to reject heat from a building. Heat is generated through a number of ways; including electrical equipment in the building, solar gain or the heat coming from the sun, and people. All this heat needs to be rejected to ensure that the temperature of the building remain sustainable. This makes a cooling tower necessary in large commercial or residential buildings and other facilities.

Cooling towers are not just used to cool buildings, though. In addition to HVAC, cooling towers are also used for some industrial processes as most of these processes require a means to reject heat.

Previously, the job of a cooling tower was done by heat sinks, specifically ponds, lakes, and rivers. However, these options are no longer feasible; thanks in part to stricter environmental legislations and the increasing demands for cooling. Thankfully, cooling towers require minimal space requirements, decreased water consumption, and lower operating costs. This has prompted the increase in innovation by cooling tower manufacturers.

In this guide, we will discuss what a cooling tower is, what cooling towers do, why we need them, the types of cooling towers, how cooling towers work, and other information you need to know about the ingenious cooling tower systems.

Question 1: What is a Cooling Tower?

The first question we need to answer is what are cooling towers? A cooling tower is a device used for heat rejection. It rejects heat from a building through the evaporation process. The tower sprays water down to remove process heat and cool down the working fluid.

Cooling towers are used in a wide variety of facilities including oil refineries, chemical and petrochemical plants, thermal and nuclear power stations, commercial and residential buildings, and many more.

Cooling tower systems can vary in size. There are small roof-top units for small structures and for large scale facilities, there are large industrial cooling towers.

Question 2: How Does A Cooling Tower Work?

How a cooling tower works is actually a simple but fascinating process. Hot water is pumped from an external source. The hot water is then sprayed into the tower through the nozzles and flows through a material called “fill” where the water is spread over a large surface area. By spreading the water over a large area, cooling it becomes relatively faster. This air-water contact cools down the water and triggers the evaporation of a small amount of water which creates more cooling action.

Once it has cooled down, the water is pumped back into the condenser or the equipment. This restarts the whole process as the water absorbs heat again and then pumped back into the tower for cooling.

Question 3: What are the Types of Cooling Tower?

The first type of cooling towers is called the crossflow. In crossflow towers, water flows down vertically and air flows horizontally across the water. Because there is less air-water contact in a crossflow cooling tower, more air is needed to cool the water. This means more power consumption, more maintenance, and increased chances of clogging.

The second type is the counter flow. Here hot water enters the top and air comes from the bottom. The counter flow tower uses both forced and induced draft fans. Counter flow towers use less energy and are easier to maintain than crossflow.

The third type is the natural draft cooling towers. This type uses the shape of the tower to move the air up naturally using fans. Natural draft towers are tall, shaped like a hyperbola, and are usually located outside as a freestanding structure.

Lastly, there is the mechanical draft tower. This uses a centrifugal fan or a propeller to force the air and circulate it inside the tower. Mechanical draft towers are smaller and can be located inside the building. Additionally, its fans can be controlled.

Question 4: What are the Benefits of a Cooling Tower?

A cooling tower provides a number of benefits.

  1. Cost Efficiency – They are a relatively affordable and reliable way of rejecting waste heat from buildings and many industrial processes.
  2. Better Performance – What cooling towers do is they prevent machines from overheating. This means those machines perform their best, require less maintenance, and live longer.
  3. Energy Savings – Since cooling towers reuse the water it cools, it is not only cost effective but also energy efficient. They also consume less power than alternatives.
  4. Options – Whatever your cooling needs are, there is a tower that is right for you. As mentioned above, towers come in a variety of sizes depending on your cooling needs. You can even take advantage of cooling tower rentals.

Question 5: What are the Technical Specifications of a Cooling Tower?

Now, let us get to the technical bit. A cooling tower is composed of the following parts with their very specific jobs.

  • The basin at the bottom of the tower collects cold water droplets after the heat is expelled.
  • The nozzles are where the hot water flows into the tower.
  • The sprinklers spray the water from the nozzles to start the cooling process.
  • The mesh filters dust and other unwanted particles.
  • The heat exchanger is where the air and water meet.
  • The float lever measures the water level.
  • The eliminator prevents the water from escaping into the atmosphere.
  • The make-up water prevents the tower from drying up.

Question 6: Where is a Cooling Tower Used?

Cooling towers are used for HVAC and industrial purposes. Their most common applications include office, schools, hospitals, and other commercial and residential buildings. They are also used in petroleum refineries, power and petrochemical plants, food processing facilities, and other industrial facilities.

In conclusion, every building needs a cooling tower. They are a cost effective and energy efficient way to cool buildings, machines, and processes.

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